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There are six chants revealed by Guru Ramdas Sahib (1534-1581 CE) recorded in Rag Vadahans on page 572 to 576 in the Guru Granth Sahib. Out of these six chants, the last two chants (fifth and sixth, page 575-576) are given the title ‘Ghoria.’ These chants have four stanzas each and are as follows:

vaḍahansu mahalā 4. deh tejaṇi jī rāmi upāīā rām. -Guru Granth Sahib 575.
vaḍahansu mahalā 4. deh tejanṛī hari nav raṅgīā rām. -Guru Granth Sahib 576.

Ghori/Ghoria Poetic-Genre
According to Bhai Vir Singh and the scholars of Shabdarth, ‘Ghoria’ are songs of blessings, sung when the bridegroom mounts the mare. Ghoria are a valuable part of Panjabi culture and have a special and unique place in Panjabi folk life. These folk songs are associated with marriage and are sung in the bridegroom’s house a few days before the wedding. In these songs, the bridegroom, his family members, his clan, and the bride-to-be are especially praised. Even though the singing of Ghoria starts a few days before the wedding, they are sung mostly during the marriage procession led by the bridegroom. It is particularly noteworthy that Ghoria are feminine in the Panjabi vocabulary. On the other hand, folk songs sung on the bride-to-be’s side are called ‘suhag,’ and they are classified as masculine.

Though the folk nature of Ghoria makes it impossible to record all existing songs, one particularly popular Ghori is examined here:
cīrā terā ve mallā sohaṇā, baṇdā kalgīāṁ de nāl.
kalgī ḍeḍh te hazār, maiṁ balihārī ve māṁ diā surjanā.
O man! Your turban becomes beautiful with a plume.
A plume of one and a half thousand, I adore you, O noble son of the mother.

Ghoriauttered by Guru Ramdas Sahib
Commentators and scholars of the Guru Granth Sahib believe that the Guru has used Ghoria in Bani only because of its popularity as a poetic genre. According to Adi Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji Satik (Faridkot Vala Tika), just as women sing Ghoria during the marriage, the Guru has uttered these Sabads at the time of union with the Divine-Husband.

According to Bhai Vir Singh, the title of this Bani is ‘Ghoria’ because Guru Ramdas Sahib uttered these Sabads of spiritual marriage based on the pattern of the Ghoria sung at that time. In these Sabads, the way to unite with IkOankar is described. The subject of Ghoria sung during a wedding revolves around the bridegroom, but here, as both are to be married to IkOankar, the word Ghori refers to the body of both. Here, the seeker is not the bridegroom who mounts the mare to marry IkOankar. Rather the seeker has to mount their body, bring it under control and attain union with IkOankar.

According to Shabdarth Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, in these Sabads, guidance is given to all seekers to mount the mare-like body and take the wedding procession of virtuous beings along in order to cross the difficult world-ocean (make life fruitful) and unite with IkOankar. In both the Sabads, first, a metaphor of the body as a beautifully adorned mare is presented, and then, the source of Nam, the Wisdom (Guru) is made the saddle. Finally, comparing the means of controlling the mind to a bridle and whip, this body, through which union with beloved IkOankar is achieved, is called blessed.

According to Prof. Sahib Singh, these two stanzas are also uttered by Guru Ramdas Sahib based on the pattern of Ghoria.

According to Dr. Rattan Singh Jaggi, by bringing this folk song into the sphere of spirituality and making the seeker mount the mare-like body, Guru Ramdas Sahib used it to unite the seeker with the Supreme Power (IkOankar). There is guidance to sing these chants based on the pattern of songs popular in folk life, which are sung by women when the bridegroom mounts the mare. Here, the Guru has not only adopted the simple pattern of the folk song Ghori but also, through the metaphor of the bridegroom mounting the mare, guided the seeker who is mounted on their mare-like body on the path to union. In this metaphor, the company of virtuous beings (sangat) plays the role of the bridegroom’s wedding procession. To control the mind, the Guru has put the bridle (wisdom) in the mouth of the mare (body). The whip of love is used to discipline the mare. In this way, the bridegroom (seeker), and the wedding procession (the company of virtuous beings) are united with the Supreme Power while walking on the difficult path of this world. This is a symbolic composition.

According to Giani Haribans Singh, it was a custom to sing Ghoria at the time of marriage. Over time, they were replaced by many indecent songs. Guru Ramdas Sahib composed this Bani under the title ‘Ghoria’ to replace this inappropriate practice. In this, through a metaphor, the body is compared to a beautifully decorated mare, whose success is described as the union with IkOankar. The principle is that by remembering the Nam of IkOankar, the body and mind come under control. The saddle and bridle are used as metaphors for disciplining the body [and mind].

Practical aspect of Ghoria recording in the Guru Granth Sahib
The use of this poetic form in the Guru Granth Sahib is proof that Ghoria are an important part of Panjabi culture. It is possible that during the Guru-period these Ghoria were sung in the Sikh homes instead of or along with the folk songs of Ghoria at the time of marriage, just like Alahania are sung even today during the demise of a person. But the practice of singing or reading these Ghoria revealed by Guru Ramdas Sahib is not prevalent anymore. The Sikhs should pay attention to this and try to popularize them again.

Based on the above discussion, it can be said that the Gurus used different varieties of Panjabi folk songs to make Gurbani a part of people’s lives. Apart from Ghoria, many other poetic forms have been used in the Guru Granth Sahib, which have been a part of the everyday life of the common people. These include Alahania, Sad, Barahmahe, Satvare, etc.