2005 Stokes Isle Apt. 896, Vacaville 10010, USA

[email protected]

mahalā 2.
je saü candā ugavahi    sūraj caṛahi hajār.
ete cānaṇ hodiāṁ    gur binu ghor andhār.2.

mahalā 2.

je saü candā ugavahi    sūraj caṛahi hajār.

ete cānaṇ hodiāṁ    gur binu ghor andhār.2.

Guru Angad uses the metaphor of sunlight and moonlight to highlight the significance of the Wisdom in all of our lives. In much literature and in many cultures around the world, the moon and sun are put in opposition to one another, representing anything from femininity and masculinity to darkness and light to competing sources of knowledge. This metaphor is about moving beyond those dichotomies. Guru Angad uses these sources of light, the sun and the moon that we see each day, as metaphors for other sources of knowledge that exist all around us. For Guru Angad, this is coming from personal experience. Guru Angad had other knowledge (religious and spiritual), and experiences with many other “suns and moons” or sources of knowledge, be they people or scriptures. But none of these sources of illumination provided Guru Angad with a transformation. Transformation can only happen through the Wisdom. The Wisdom came via Guru Nanak. Guru Angad compares other sources of knowledge to the Wisdom and shows them to be incomplete. Despite the existence of countless external sources of light — even if hundreds of moons and thousands of suns arose in the same sky — the darkness of ignorance cannot be removed from the human mind. No matter how many external sources of illumination we turn to, no matter how much we think we can make it through this life on our own, our lives can only be transformed through the Light of the Wisdom. It is through the Wisdom’s guidance that we can transform from ordinary human beings in utter darkness into beings who, through elevated conduct, have become like the One.

Salok revealed to the Second Embodiment, Guru Angad Sahib.
Even if hundreds of moons arise and thousands of suns ascend into the sky; despite the presence of innumerable sources of light, without the Wisdom (Guru) there is complete ignorance (darkness).

Note: In this salok, Guru Angad Sahib illustrates the importance of the Guru in the life of a human being. Despite the presence of innumerable external sources of light, the darkness of ignorance does not perish from the human mind. Life transforms only through the Guru. Only the Guru, can transform an ordinary person into a being having IkOankar-like virtues and high conduct.

Second Embodiment.
If hundreds of moons arise, (and) thousands of suns ascend, (even with) there being so many sources emitting light, without the Guru there is extreme darkness.

In this salok, viatirek alaṅkār has been used to depict the Guru’s glory. Traditionally, light has been considered as a symbol of knowledge and darkness as a symbol of ignorance. The original source of light in creation is the sun; and the moon, the secondary source of light, is illuminated from the sun’s light. For this reason, allusions to wisdom and light are always made through the well-known comparison of the sun and the moon. In this salok, these common symbols are compared to the wisdom disseminated by the Guru in the form of illumination, and depicted as inferior.

Here, the usage of hundred for moon, and thousand for sun as numeral adjectives is also very creative, as it emphasizes the inferiority of well-known comparisons of sun-moon, the key sources of light, multiple times. The moon, the secondary source of light, has been shown to be smaller than the Guru only by a hundred times, while the sun, the fundamental source of light, has been shown to be a thousand times smaller than the Guru.

In the first line, the verb ‘ugavahi’ (they arise) has been used for moon, and ‘caṛahi’ (they rise) for sun. Because the meaning of both words is the same: ‘rising,’ it is ‘repetition of synonyms’.

The use of the words ‘cānaṇ’ (light-sources) and ‘ghor andhār’ (extreme darkness) in the second line is also very creative. Through the usage of these mutually opposite-meaning words, the significance and intensity of the radiance of Guru bestowed inner-wisdom has been depicted with vigor.

It is also clear that the presence of a hundred moons and a thousand suns simultaneously is not possible. This is why the first line starts with ‘je’ (if) and the individual is asked to imagine such a unique situation. Similarly, in the second line, light emanating from such an extraordinarily exceptional situation has been described through the expression ‘ete cānaṇ’ (so many light sources).

On the other hand, the adjective ‘ghor’ (extreme) used in ‘gor andhār’ (extreme darkness) makes the depth and density of darkness even more intense. The second Sovereign implies that without the Guru, even such an incomparable state of light is equal to infinite darkness. The creative employment of all these words highlight the Guru’s importance and glory with great intensity.

The meter convention of this salok is 12+11 (first line) and 13+11 (second line). This can be categorized under a two line verse/couplet with 13+11 characters each (doharā chand).